Title:
Emerging Methods and Models for the Control of Distributed Energy Resources
Session Chair:
Andrew Keane
University College Dublin, Ireland
Abstract:

This session will look at the latest methods being developed and deployed for the control of distributed energy resources. Centralised and distributed control architectures are being proposed in various instances with a range of energy resources being controlled, ranging from wind and photovoltaic generation to demand response schemes. This session will seek to provide a picture of the spectrum of the state of the art control methods and their application to the electric power system. In addition, multiple stakeholders are now seeking to utilise energy resources as means of providing a service to the system, the resolution of these multiple control objectives, sometime simultaneous will also be explored.

Panellists
● Paul Cuffe, University College Dublin, Ireland
- A Discussion of Reactive Power Control Possibilities in Distribution Networks Dedicated to Generation
● Hongjian Sun, Durham University, UK
- Emerging Methods and Models for the Control of Distributed Energy Resources
● Nando Luis Ochoa, University of Manchester, UK
- New Approaches for the Control of Future LV Networks


Invited Lecture:
New Approaches for the Control of Future LV Networks
Professor Luis Nando Ochoa

The increasing and future adoption of domestic-scale low carbon technologies such as photovoltaic systems, electric vehicles and electric heat pumps is and will pose significant technical and economic challenges on low voltage networks. These networks have been designed to be passive (no controllable elements) and hence are largely unmonitored. However, it is likely that they will become on of the first bottlenecks towards the decarbonisation of our electricity networks.
This presentation will first introduce the potential problems or impacts of different penetrations of low carbon technologies using a Monte Carlo approach to cater for the corresponding uncertainties involved. It will then present and discuss the benefits and drawbacks of some of the potential solutions that might allow higher penetrations without the need of traditional reinforcements. The work is based on different industrial projects hence it will provide insights on real LV networks as well as the trialled technologies.

Invited Paper:
A Discussion of Reactive Power Control Possibilities in Distribution Networks Dedicated to Generation
Professor Paul Cuffe

There are various control modes available for the reactive power behaviour of modern wind farms. Using a simple scoping load-flow simulation approach, this paper discusses some of the various interactions that may arise between wind farm and transformer voltage regulators. For two sample generation-only distribution networks, a load-flow calculation was run for every minute of a test month, updating wind outputs each period, and imposing the historic transmission system voltage at the appropriate bus. This fine-grained approach, simple as it is, allows some separation of the control effects of slow-acting tap changers at bulk supply transformers, and fast-acting power electronics in wind farms. For three categories of control scheme – local voltage control, power factor control, and active control – the performance of each wind cluster is quantified from the perspective of the transmission and distribution system operator. Information relevant to the transmission system operator is the aggregate response of the wind cluster: how does the net reactive power flow vary with system voltage and with wind power exports? For the distribution system operator, the effects of the various control modes on active power losses and transformer tapping activity is explicitly captured. This simulation approach, while not rigorous or definitive, does draw out some salient relationships and gives a useful basis for discussion of reactive power control possibilities.